The Sport of Tae Kwon Do

Tae Kwon Do is an exciting Olympic Sport,
which is played in almost every country in the World.
These are the official rules:

World Taekwondo Federation
Competition Rules


Article 1. Purpose

  The Purpose of the competition rules is to manage fairly and smoothly
  all matters pertaining to competitions of all levels to be promoted
  and/or organized by the WTF, Regional Unions and any member National
  Associations ensuring the application of standarzed rules.

   Interpretation:  The objective of Article 1 is to ensure the
                     standardization of all Taekwondo competitions
                     worldwide.  Any competitions not following the
                     fundamental principles of these rules cannot be
                     recognized as Taekwondo competition.

Article 2. Application

  The Competition Rules shall apply to all the competitions to be promoted
  and/or organized by the WTF, each Regional Union and member National
  Association.

    However, any member National Association wishing to modify some part
  of the Competition Rules must first gain the approval of the WTF.

   Explanation(1) : First gain the approval.  Any organization desiring to
                     make a change in some portion of the existing rules must
                     submit to the WTF the contents of the desired amendment
                     along with the reasons for the desired change.  Approval
                     for any changes in these rules must be received from the
                     WTF one month prior to the scheduled competition.

   Explanation(2) : a) Change of weight category,
                     b) Increase of decrease of the number of IR's,
                     c) Change of positions for the Head of Court Inspector,
                        and Commission Doctor etc., and
                     d) duration of contest etc. are subjects to be included
                        in the category of subjects which may be modified after
                        first gaining the approval of the WTF;  however, such
                        matters as valid points, warnings and deductions and
                        the competition area are not to be changed under any
                        circumstances whatever.

Article 3. Competition Area

  The competition area shall measure 12m X 12m in the metric system and have
  a flat surface without any obstructing projections. The competition area
  shall be covered with an elastic mat.

    However, the competition area may be installed on a platform 50cm - 60cm
  high from the base, if necessary, and the outer part of the Boundary Line
  shall be inclined with a gradient of less than 30 degrees for the safety
  of the safety of the contestants.

    1.  Demarcation of the Competition Area

          i) The 8m X 8m area in the inner part of the Competition Area of
             12m X 12m shall be called the Contest Area and the outer part of
             the Contest Area shall be called the Alert Area.
            
         ii) The demarcation of the Contest Area and the Alert Area shall be
             distinguished by the different colors of indicated by a while
             line 5cm wide when the entire surface is one color.

        iii) The demarcation line between the Contest Area and the Alert Area
             shall be called the Alert Line and the marginal line of the
             Competition Area shall be called the Boundary line.

    2.  Indication of positions

          i) Position of the Referee

             The position of the Referee shall be marked at a point 150 cm
             back from the center point of the Competition Area to the opposite
             side of the Head of Court's seat, and designated as the Referee's
             Mark.

         ii) Position of the Judges

             The position of the Judges shall be marked at a point 50 cm outwards
             from each corner of the Boundary Line facing towards the center point
             of the Competition Area.

        iii) Position of the Head of Court

             The position of the Head of Court shall be marked at least 100 cm
             away from the Boundary Line facing the Referee's Mark.

         iv) Position of the Recorder

             The position of the Recorder shall be marked at a point 300 cm
             to the right and 100 cm back from the position of the Head of
             Court.

          v) Position of the Commission Doctor

             The position of the Commission Doctor shall be marked at a point
             600 cm to the right side of the position of the Recorder.

         vi) Position of the Contestants Position of the contestants shall be
             marked at a point 100 cm to the left and right sides of the
             center point of the Contest Area facing towards the position of
             the Head of Court.  The left side shall be the Red Contest's
             Mark and the right side shall be the Blue Contestant's Mark.

        vii) Position of the Coaches

             The position of the coaches shall be marked at a point at least
             100 cm away from the Boundary Line of each contestant's side.

       viii) Position of the Inspection Desk

             The position of the inspection desk shall be near the entrance
             of the Competition Area for inspection of the contestant's
             protective equipment.

          Explanation (3) : Color

                           The color scheme of the mat's surface must avoid
                           giving a harsh reflection, or tiring the contetant's
                           or spectator's eyesight.  The color scheme must also
                           be appropriately matched to the competitor's equipment,
                           uniform and the competition surface.

          Explanation (4) : The Alert Line

                           In principle, the Alert Line should be a white color,
                           however, according to the prevailing circumstances,
                           another color may be used as long as it is not an
                           impediment to the competition.

          Explanation (5) : Inspection Desk

                           At the Inspection Desk, the inspector checks if all the
                           materials worn by the contestant are WTF approved and fit
                           the contestant properly.  In case they are found to be
                           inappropriate, the contestant shall be kept from entering
                           the contest.

          Guidelines for Officiating (1) :

              Judgement of the validity of techniques is related to the boundaries
              of the Competition Area and is dependent on the timing of the
              Referee's declaration of Kalyeo.  Any actions occurring before the
              declaration of kalyeo are, in principle, valid without consideration
              to the location in which the actions occur.
            
              The Referee bases the declaration of Kalyeo partially on the relative
              position of the contestants to the Alert Line, and the contestants
              and Judges base their respective actions and decisions partially on
              the Referee's declaration of Kalyeo.

              The Referee's criterion for the declaration of Kalyeo is the point
              at which one foot of either contestant crosses the Alert Line.  To
              declare Kalyeo in the absence of violations or safety considerations,
              or before one foot of either contestant crosses the Alert Line is
              irregular, however, dependent on the circumstances of the match,
              these instantaneous decisions follow the judgement of the Referee.

              When the Referee deems it appropriate to allow the match to continue
              uninterrupted until that instant when both contestants have completely
              crossed over the Alert Line, the Referee may do so and can declare
              Kalyeo at his/her discretion.

          Guidelines for Officiating (2):                 

              A.  The Referee must have a full understanding of the Competition
                  Area's dimensions and of the application of these dimensions
                  in officiating.

              B.  The Referee must utilize the full limits of the Competition
                  Area in order to avoid excessive interruption of the match.
                  However, when a contestant leaves the Alert Area for the purpose
                  of negative game management or to avoid the exchange of techniques,
                  the Referee must declare Kalyeo and assess a penalty.

              C.  When both feet or both contestants have crossed the Alert Line the
                  Referee must declare Kalyeo and, if there is any hesitation on the
                  part of the Referee to declare Kalyeo in this situation,
                  responsibility for any occurrence must be borne by the Referee.

Article 4. Contestants

    1.  Qualification of contestants

          i)  Holder of the Nationality of the participating team.
         ii)  One recommended by the National Taekwondo Federation.
        iii)  Holder of Taekwondo dan certificate issued by the Kukkiwon/WTF.

    2.  The costume for contestants

          i)  The contestant shall wear a Taekwondo uniform (Dobok) and
              protectors recognized by the WTF.

         ii)  The contestant shall wear the trunk protector, head protector,
              groin guard, forearm and shin guards before entering the
              contest area and the groin guards, forearm and shin guards
              shall be worn inside the Taekwondo uniform.

        iii)  The contestant shall wear the contestant's number on the back
              of the uniform.

    3.  Medical control

          i)  The use or administration of drugs or chemical substances
              described in the IOC doping by-laws is prohibited.

         ii)  The WTF may carry out any medical testing deemed necessary
              to ascertain if a contestant has committed a breach of this
              rule, and any winner who refuses to undergo this testing or
              who proves to have committed such a breach shall be removed
              =from the final standings.

           Interpretation : A contestant's eligibility is established by meeting
                           all three requirements listed above in Section 1
                           "Qualification of contestants"

           Explanation (1) :  Holder of the nationality of the participating team

                             When a contestant is a representative of a national
                             team, the criterion of nationality is holder of
                             citizenship of the country he/she is representing before
                             submission of the application to participate.  Verification
                             of citizenship is done by inspection of the passport.

                             In the event that a competitor holds more than one
                             citizenship, the choice of participation is the decision
                             of the competitor.

         Explanation (2) :  Constestant's number

                             For adults, the size of the number patch shall be 25cm X 25cm
                             and be made of cloth, worn on the ack of the uniform.

         Explanation (3) :  Forfeiture of standings

                             The record shall be transferred to the contestants next in
                             line in the competition standings according to the procedure
                             established in these by - laws.

Article 5. Weight Divisions

    1.  Weights are divided into male and female divisions.

    2.  Weight divisions are divided as follows.
         Interpretation :  A Taekwondo tournament is a competition which is
                            decided, within the rules, by direct physical contact
                            and forceful physical collisions between contestants.
                            In order to reduce the impact of the inequality in
                            relative factors between contestants and ensure safety as
                            well as create equal conditions for the exchange of techniques,
                            the weight division system was established.

                            The division of men and women into separate categories, men
                            competing against men and women competing only against women,
                            is a fundamental rule.

         Explanation (1) : Not exceeding

                            The weight limit is defined by the criterion of two decimal
                            places away from the stated limit (in hundreths).  For
                            example, not exceeding 50 kg is established as up to with
                            50.00 kg inclusive of 50.009 with 50.01 being over the limit.

         Explanation (2) : Over

                            Over the 50.00 kg mark occurs at the 50.01 kg reading and
                            49.99 kg is regarded as insufficient with both readings
                            resulting in disqualification.

Article 6. Classification and Methods of Competitions

   1.  Competitions are divided as follows:

         i)  Individual competition shall normally be between contestants
             in the same weight class.  When necessary, adjoining weight
             classes may be combined to create a single classification.

        ii)  Team competition;

             Systems of Competition

             (a)  Five (5) contestants with no weight limit.
             (b)  Eight (8) contestants by weight classification.
             (c)  Four (4) contestants by weight classification (consolidation
                  of the eight weight classifications into four weight categories
                  by combining two adjoining weight classes).

   2.  Systems of competition are divided as follows:

         i)  Single elimination tournament system.

        ii)  Round Robin system.

   3.  All internation-level competitions recognized by the WTF shall be formed
       with participation of at least 3 countries with no less than 3 contestants
       cannot recognized in the official results.

        Interpretation:

            A.  In the tournament system, competition is founded on an individual
                basis.  However, the team standings can also be determined by the
                results of the individual standings according to the overall
                scoring method.

            B.  In the team competition system, the outcome of each team competition
                is determined by the individual team results.

        Explanation (1) : Consolidation of the weight divisions

                           The method of consolidation and the names of the consolidated
                           divisions are as follow :

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        Explanation (2) : Five person team match

                         In the five person team match format there exists no
                         designated weight classifications.  The winning team
                         is the one which records three or more victories.  The
                         order of matches by the names of the contestants must
                         be submitted in writing before the competition begins.

                         Up to two people may be designated as substitutes, however,
                         their names and substitution order must be submitted in
                         writing before the match.

                         However, the system of five contestants with no weight limit
                         may be applied by modifying the consolidated weight
                         classification plus one contestant with no weight limit as
                         a team.

        Explanation (3) : Eight weight class format

                           According to competition in eight weight classes, the
                           team winning five or more divisions is victorious.  In
                           the event that the team match cannot be decided to due
                           a tied score (four or four), each team shall designate a
                           representative to fight a tie-break match.

                           In this format a contestant may not be substituted from
                           outside the original eight members.

        Interpretation:

          C.  In the above format, if before all matches have been conducted, one
              team achieves a majority of victories, the remaining matches should,
              in principle, also be conducted.  If the losing team wishes to
              forfeit the remaining matches, the result shall be recorded as a
              loss due to disqualification without consideration for the
              accumulated record.

Article 7. Duration of Contest

   The duration of the contest shall be three rounds of three minutes with
   one minute of rest between rounds in male and female divisions.  However,
   the duration of the contest may be shortened to three rounds of two
   minutes with one minute of rest between rounds.

Article 8. Drawing Lots

   1.  The drawing of lots shall be conducted one day prior to the first
       competition in the presence of WTF officials and the representative
       of the participating nations, and the drawing of lots shall be done
       from Fin weight up in the English alphabetical order of the official
       names of the participating nations.

   2.  Officials shall be designated to draw lots on behalf of the officials
       of participating nations not present at the drawing.

   3.  The order of the draw may be changed according to the decision of the
       Head of Team meeting.

Article 9. Weigh-In

   1.  Weigh-in of the contestants on the day of competition shall be
       completed one hour prior to the competition.

   2.  Weigh-in shall be conducted in the nude.

   3.  Weigh-in shall be made once, however, one more weigh-in is granted
       within the time limit for official weigh-in to the contestant who
       did not qualify the first time.

   4.  So as not to be disqualified during official weigh-in, a scale, the
       same as the official one, shall be provided at the contestants place
       of accommodation or at the arena for preweigh-in.

    Explanation (1): The contestants on the day of competition

                      This is defined as those contestants who are listed to
                      compete on a scheduled day by the competition Organizing
                      Committee or the WTF.

                      One hour prior to competition -
          
                      The time for weigh-in will be previously decided and
                      announced by the Organizing Committee prior to the competition.

                      The weigh-in must be completed, without exception, one hour
                      prior to the start of the competition.

   Explanation (2): A separate site for the weigh-in shall be installed for the
                      female contestants whose weigh-in must be conducted by a female
                      official in charge.

    Explanation (3): Disqualification during official weigh-in 

                      The practice scale must be of the same type and calibrations as
                      that of the official scale and these facts must be verified prior
                      to the competition by the Organizing  Committee.

Article 10. Procedure of the Contest

   1.  Call for contestants

       The name of the contestants shall be announced three times beginning
       three minutes prior to the scheduled start of the contest.

       The contestants who fails to appear in the contest area within one
       minute after the scheduled start of the competition shall be regarded
       as withdrawn.

   2.  Physical and costume inspection.

       After being called, the contestants shall undergo physical and costume
       inspection at the designated inspection desk, and the contestant shall
       not show any signs of aversion, and also shall not bear any materials
       which could cause harm to the other contestant.

   3.  Entering the competition area

       After inspection, the contestant shall enter into the waiting position
       with one coach.

   4.  Start and end of the contest

       The contest in each round shall begin with the declaration of Shijak (start)
       by the Referee and shall end with the declaration of Keuman (stop) by the
       Referee.

   5.  Procedures before the beginning and after the end of the contest

       a)  The contestants shall turn to the Head of Court and make a standing
           bow at the Referee's command of Charyeot (attention) and Kyeong-rye (bow).

           A standing bow shall be made from the natural standing posture of Charyeot
           by inclining forward at the waist to an angle of more than 30 degrees
           with the head inclined to an angle of more than 45 degrees and the
           fists clenched at the sides of the legs.

       b)  The contestants shall face each other and exchange a standing bow at the
           Referee's command of Jwawoohyangwoo (face each other), Kyeong-rye (bow).

       c)  The Referee shall start the contest by commanding Joonbi (ready), and
           Shijak (begin).

       d)  After the end of the last round, the contestants shall stand at their
           respective positions facing each other and exchange a standing bow at
           the Referee's command of Charyeot, Kyeong-rye, and then shall turn to
           the Head of Court and make a standing bow at the Referee's command of
           Jwawoohyangwoo, Kyeongrye, and then wait for the Referee's declaration
           of the decision in a standing posture.

       e)  The Referee shall declare the winner by raising the winner's hand
           according to the result of the contest.  However, when the winner is
           unable to stand at his/her position due to injury, the Referee shall
           declare the winner by raising his/her own hand to the winner's side.

       f)  Retirement of the contestant.

   6.  Contest procedure in team competition

       a)  Both teams shall ilne up in column in the submitted team order
           facing the Head of Court.

       b)  Procedures before the beginning and after the end of the contest shall
           be conducted as in item 5, of this Article.

       c)  both teams shall leave the Contest Area and stand by at the designated
           area for each contestant's match.

       d)  Both teams shall line up in the Contest area immediately after the end
           of the final match facing each other.

       e)  The Referee shall declare the winning team by raising his/her own hand
           to the winning team's side.

Article 11. Permitted Techniques and Areas

   1.  Permitted techniques

       a)  Fist techniques:  Delivering techniques by using the front parts of
                             the forefinger and middle finger of the tightly
                             clenched fist.

       b)  Foot techniques:  Delivering techniques by using the part of the foot
                             below the ankle bone.

   2.  Permitted areas

       a)  Trunk

           Within the limits of the area from a horizontal line at the base of
           the Acromion down to a horizontal line at the iliac crest, attack by
           fist and foot techniques are permitted.

           However, such attacks shall not be made on the part of the back not
           covered by the trunk protector.

       b)  Face

           This area is the front part of the face on the basis of a coronal
           line at both ears and attack by foot technique only is permitted.

        Explanation (1): Fist techniques

                          In the original Korean terminology of techniques, the
                          term "Parun-ju-mok" can be interpreted as a correctly
                          clenched fist.  Therefore, striking with the front
                          part of the middle and forefinger knuckles of the
                          correctly clenched fist is permitted without consideration
                          of the angle, trajectory, or fist placement of the strike.

        Explanation (2): Foot techniques

                          Any striking techniques using the part of the foot below
                          the ankle bone are legal, whereas any others using the
                          part of the leg above that bone, i.e. part of the shin or
                          knee, etc. are not permitted.  However, any attack against
                          the face which involves inadvertent use of the lower part
                          of the leg is permitted.

        Explanation (3): Trunk

                          As depicted in the following illustration, the area between
                          the Acromion and the lliac crest of the pelvis is the legal
                          attacking area.  This legal atacking area is demarcated during
                          the actual competition by the area of the body covered by the
                          body protector.

                          In accordance with the weight class and body type of the
                          competitor, use of the proper size body protector must be
                          strictly checked by the officials.

        Explanation (4): Face

                          As depicted in the following illustration, this is the part
                          of the face forward of a vertical line at both ears.  This
                          includes the throat above the collar bone as part of the face.

                             
Artlcle 12. Valid Points
  1. Legal scoring areas
     a) Mid-section of the trunk:
        The abdomen and both sides of the flank.
     b) Face : The permitted parts of the face.
  2. Points shall be awarded when permitted techniques are delivered 
     accurately and powerfully to the legal scoring areas of the body.
     However, when a contestant is knocked down as a result of the opponent's 
     attack on a part of the trunk protector which is not part of a legal 
     scoring area, such a technique shall be regarded as a point.
  3. Each scoring technique shall earn 1 (plus one) point.
  4. Match score shall be the sum of points of the three rounds.
  5. Invalidation of points. When the following are committed, the delivered
     technique will not be scored.
     a) Intentionally falling, immediately after delivery of the legitimate 
        technique.
     b) Comitting an illegal act after delivery of the legitimate technique.
     c) Use of any of the prohibited actions.
     Explanation(1) : Legal scoring areas:
          Trunk - The valid scoring areas of the trunk are divided into
                  three sections;
             A. The abdomen
             B. Both flanks
          The size of each scoring area is depicted in the following 
          illustration;
             Face -The same as the permitted parts of the face.
     Explanation(2) : Accuracy 
          This means the proper aspect of a legal attacking technique, fully
          contacting within the designated limits of a legal target area.
     Explanation(3) : Power
          A. In the use of electronic scoring body protector:
             Criterion for the face of impact which must be registered by
             the electronic scoring method in order to record a point, is
             determined by weight division and sex of the competitor.
          B. Trunk protector not equipped with electronics:
             Suficient power is demonstrated when the opponent's body is 
             abruptly displaced by the impact of the strike.
     Explanation(4) : Such a technique shall be regarded as a point
          When a contestant loses the functional ability to pursue the 
          match according to one of the following conditions, the Referee
          must start a count and the Judges must award a point.
            A. The contestant is knocked down by the power of the technique's 
               impact.
            B. The contestant is staggered by the power of the technique's 
               impact.
            C. The contestant falls heavily as a result of the technique's
               impact.
            Guidelines for officiating: In the situation where a contestant
              falls heavily as a result of the impact of a technique, if that 
              fall is due in part to the contestant having lost his/her 
              balance, or been entangled with the other competitor in a 
              technical exchange, a point cannot be awarded.
            Explanation(5) : Invalidation of a point
              It is a rule that points gained through illegal techniques
              or actions cannot be valid. In this situation the Referee 
              must indicate invalidation of the point by hand signal and 
              declare the appropriate penalty.
                A. Intentional falling after delivery of an attack; 
                   If a competitor, after delivery of a scoring technique, 
                   seeks to avoid the opponent's counterattack by intentional 
                   falling, the point shall be invalidated.
                B. Committing a violation after delivery of a legitimate 
                   technique:
                   If a contestant, after delivery of a scoring technique,
                   seeks to avoid or impede the opponent's retaliatory 
                   technique by holding, clinching, stepping on or kicking 
                   the opponent's leg, etc. the point is invalid.
                   However, if the violations occur independently of the
                   scoring technique, the point remains valid after 
                   declaration of the penalty.
                C. Use of any of the prohibited actions:
                   If a point is gained by utilizing an illegal action or in
                   combination with an illegal action, the point must be
                   invalidated.
                Guidelines for officiating: In the above situation the Referee 
                   shall immediately declare Kalyeo and shall first 
                   invalidate the point by hand signal, and then declare the
                   appropriate penalty.
                   If the situation does not war rant invalidation of the
                   point, then only the penalty is declared.

Article 13. Scoring and Publication

  1. Valid points shall be immediately recorded and publicized.
  2. In the use of body protectors not equipped with electronics, valid points 
     shall be immediately marked by each Judge by using an electronic scoring 
     instrument or Judge's scoring sheet.
  3. In the use of electronic protectors
     a) Valid points scored on the midsection of the trunk shall be recorded 
        automatically by the transmitter the electronic protectors.
     b) Valid points scored to the face shall be marked by each Judge by using 
        the electronic scoring instrument or Judge's scoring sheet.
     Interpretation : It is a principle of these rules that points shall be
                      awarded immediately. This principle must be followed 
                      regardless of the scoring method used.
     Explanation(1) : Points shall be immediately recorded 
                      Immediate scoring means awarding the point immediately 
                      after delivery of the scoring technique. Points awarded 
                      after a period of time has elapsed cannot be considered 
                      valid.
     Expianatlon(2) : Immediately recorded and publicized
                      A point having been awarded by the Judges shall be 
                      immediately publicized on the scoreboard.
     Expianatlon(3) : Use of body protectors not eouiped with electronics
                      All scoring must be done according to the Judge's own 
                      decision. There must be equipment available which is 
                      capable of immediately conveying the recorded point to 
                      the scoreboard. However, when electronic publication
                      equipment is not available, the points shall be 
                      immediately recorded on the judge's scoring sheet and 
                      publicized at the end of the round.
     Expianatlon(4) : The use of electronic protectors
                      Scoring techniques striking the body protector will be 
                      automatically recorded.
                      Judges will award points resulting from face attacks or 
                      scoring attacks on areas outside of the scoring targets 
                      on the body protector.
     Guidelines for Officiating: The Judges will abide by the principle of 
          immediate scoring regardless of the scoring system. Awarding
          a point at the end of the round is a violation of this regulation.

Article 14. Prohibited Acts

  1. Penalties on any prohibited acts shall be declared by the Referee.
  2. In the case of multiple penalties being committed simultaneously, the 
     heavier penalty shall be declared.
  3. Penalties are divided into Kyong-go(warning penalty) and Gamjeom 
     (deduction pen- alty).
  4. Two Kyong-gos shall be counted as a deduction of one (1) point. However, 
     the last odd Kyong-go shall not be counted in the grand total.
  5. A Gam-jeom shall be counted as a minus one(-1) point.
  6. Prohibited acts : Kyong-go penalty.
     a) Grabbing the opponent
     b) Pushing the opponent with the shoulder, body, hands, or arms.
     c) Holding the opponent with the hands or arms
     d) Intentionally crossing the Alert Line
     e) Evading by turning the back to the opponent
     f) Intentionally falling down
     g) Pretending injury
     h) Attacking with the knee
     i) Attacking the groin intentionally
     j) Intentionally stomping or kicking any part of the leg or foot
     k) Hitting the opponent's face with the hand or fist
     l) Gesturing to indicate scoring or deduction by raising hand, etc.
     m) Uttering undesirable remarks or any misconduct on the part of the 
        contestant or the coach
  7. Prohibited acts : Gam-jeom penalty.
     a) Attacking the fallen opponent
     b) Intentional attack after the Referee's declaration of Kalyeo (break)
     c) Attacking the back and the back of the head intentionally
     d) Attacking the opponent's face severely with the hand or fist
     e) Butting
     f) Crossing the Boundary Line
     g) Throwing the opponent
     h) Violent or extreme remarks or behavior on the part of the contestant 
        or the coach
  8. When a contestant refuses to comply with the Competition Rules or the 
     Referee's order intentionally, the Referee may declare the contestant
     the loser by penalties.
  9. When a contestant receives minus three(-3)points, the Referee shall 
     declare him/her the loser by penalties.
 10. Kyong-go and Gam-jeom shall be counted in the total score of the three 
     rounds.
     Interpretation : Objectives in establishing the prohibited acts :
        1. To protect the competitors
        2. To ensure fair competition management
        3. To encourage appropriate or ideal technique
     Explanation(1) : Multiple penalties being commited simultaneously
                      In this instance, only the severer penalty may be
                      assessed. For instance, if a Kyong-go penalty and 
                      a Gam-jeom penalty occur simultaneously, the
                      Gam-jeom must be assessed.
                      If both violations are of equal severity, the Referee 
                      will use his/her own discretion in choosing which penalty
                      to declare.
     Explanation(2) : Two Kyong-gos shall be counted ps a deduction of
                      one(1) point-However, the final odd Kyong-go shall have 
                      no value in the total score. 
                      Every two Kyong-gos shall count as a minus one point 
                      regardless of whether the committed violations are the 
                      same or different acts, and regardless of the round in 
                      which they occur.
     Explanation(3) : Kyong-go 
          3-(1) Grabbing the opponent 
                This includes grabbing any part of the opponent's body uniform 
                or body protector with the hands. Also included is the act
                of grabbing the foot or leg or hocking either one on top of
                the forearm. This sub-article shall be applied in punishing
                those acts.
          3-(2) Pushing with the shoulder, body and hand 
                a. Pushing to displace the opponent's balance for the purpose 
                   of gaining an advantage in attacking.
                b. Pushing to hinder the opponent's attack or hinder the normal
                   execution of technique.
                c. Pushing the opponent's leg after that leg has been hocked by
                   the arm or caught by the shoulder.
                d. Pushing with the fist, shoulder or head, etc.

          3-(3) Holding the opponent with the hand or arm
                Pressing the opponent's shoulder with the hand or arm hooking 
                the opponent's body with the arm with the intention of 
                hindering the opponent's motion.
                If, during the competition the arm is passed beyond the 
                opponent's shoulder or arm for the above mentioned purpose, a
                penalty must be declared.

     Guidelines for Officiating: The above three items (the acts of grabbing, 
        pushing, holding) are the main reasons to denigrate the Taekwondo 
        competition. It must be recognized that these acts are the primary 
        means of concealing the discrepancy in technical ability between two 
        contestants. The contestants must, in principle, maintain an attitude 
        of sportsmanship with the spirit of fair play, and the Referee must
        play a role in managing a competition in which the contestants can 
        exert their best performance under fair match conditions. 
        When any of these above mentioned acts occur, a penalty must be 
        declared immediately upon recognition of a violation regardless of 
        the severity of the violation. However, if both contestants commit one 
        of the acts simultaneously, the Referee must be alert to determine 
        which contestant instigated the violation. 
        The importance of determining which contestant instigated the 
        violation is necessary to avoid the ineffective and unjtJst act of 
        declaring penalties against both contestants. For instance, a 
        contestant may be holding asa result of being pushed. Under these 
        circumstances, the Referee must identify the contestant initiating
        the illegal action and declare the appropriate penalty against him/
        her.
        3-(4) Intentionally crossing the alert Line
           The purpose of this sub-article is to punish the act of crossing 
        the Alert Line with the intention of avoiding the attack of the 
        opponent, or for the purpose of negative match management. Apart from 
        this, crossing the line without relation to the progress of the
        match must also be seen as a violation. However, if the Alert Line is 
        crossed unintentionally in the course of a technical exchange or, one 
        contestant is pushed over the line by the opponent's technique,
        no penalty is assessed. In this case, determining the intent of
        the contestant crossing the line is done by assessment of performance 
        at the time of crossing the line.
           With the exception of the following three cases, crossing the line 
        must be regarded as intentional and a penalty must be assessed;
           A. Crossing the line in the process of executing techniques.
           B. Being pushed over the line by the opponent's technique.
           C. Unwillingly losing the capability to stay inside the line.
        3-(5) Evading by turning the back to the opponent 
           This act involves turning the, back to avoid the opponent's attack
        and the reasons for punishing this action are the lack of a correct 
        competition attitude and the fact that this act carries inherent 
        dangers which could result in serious injury. Included in this act is 
        evading the opponent's attack by ducking or bending actions which
        could forfeit the ability to maintain eye contact with the opponent.
        3-(6) Intentionally falling
           This penalty applies only to the act of fatling with the intention 
        of avoid the opponent's technique. Therefore, the pena1ty is assessed 
        when intentional evasion is obvious.
        3-(7) Pretending injury 
           Punishing the absence of the spirit of fair play is the intention 
        of this sub-article. This means exaggerating injury or indicating pain 
        in a body part not subjected to a blow for the purpose of demonstrating
        the opponent's action as a violation. Also, exaggerating pain for the
        purpose of elapsing the game time.
        3-(8) Attacking with the knee.
           This article relates to an intentional attack with the knee when in 
        close proximity to the opponent. However, actions such as the following
        cannot be punished by this article:
        a. when the opponent rushes in abrubtly to initiate a kicking attack.
        b. As the result of a discrepancy in gauging distance a blow occurs 
           inadvertently.
        3-(9) Attacking the groin
           This article applies to an intentional attack to the groin. When a 
        blow to the groin is caused by the recipient of the blow or occurs in 
        the course of an exchange of techniques, no penalty is assessed.
        3-(10) Intentionally kicking or stomping any part of the leg. 
           This article applies to strong kicking or stomping actions to any 
        part of the thigh, knee or shin for the purpose of interfering with 
        the opponent's technique, or if these actions occur outside the 
        inadvertent contact of normal technical exchanges.
           Contact which is made in the course of connected, progressive 
        technical actions in the air, which does not give a strong impact to 
        the opponent can be permitted.
        3-(11) Hitting the face with the hand or fist.
           This action includes hitting the opponent's face with the hand 
        (fist), wrist, arm, or elbow.
        3-(12) Gesturing to indicate scoring or deduction by raising the hand, 
               etc.
           Gesturing means the act of waving the hand or fist in an excessive 
        manner in relation to the competition content during the match. 
        Contestants may not express their personal judgements or will regarding
        the technical action except by the technique itself.
        3-(13) Uttering undersirable remarks or any misconduct on the part of 
               the contestant or the coach.
           In this instance, the undesirable behavior includes physical actions
        or attitudes which cannot be accepted from the competitor or coach as 
        amateur sportsmen or taekwondoists.

        Details of these actions:
        a. Any actions interfering with the pogress of the competition.
        b. Any action or behavior severely criticizing the Referee's decision 
           or any match officiating by using an irregular method.
        c. Physical or verbal behavior insulting the opposing competitor or 
           coach.
        d. Loud or excessive coaching.
        e. When the contestant does not return to the Competitor's Mark from 
           the coaching chair immediately upon the command of the Referee or
           leaves the competition area for the purpose of advantaging 
           themselves in the match.
        f. When the competitor delays immediate resumption of the match after 
           the declaration of Kalyeo by taking a delaying or circuitous route 
           to the point of resumption in spite of the Referee's order. 
        g. When any unnecessary or undesirable act with regard to the contest 
           or any behaviour regarding the contest itself which is not within 
           normally accepted limits is committed.
             This article must be understood in relation to Gam-jeom 
           sub-article 4.8 regarding the degree of illegality and intensity of 
           the action.
             In severe cases, sub-article 4.8 is applied and in less severe 
           cases this sub-article is used, however, if the less severe cases 
           are repeatedly seen, sub-article 4.8 may be used to penalize them.
             In distinguishing the above cases, the authority to do so is the 
           Referee's alone and cannot be contested. When misconduct is 
           committed by a contestant or coach during the rest period, the 
           Referee can immediately declare the penalty and that penalty shall 
           be recorded on the next round's results.
      Explanation(4) : GAM-JEOM
      4-(1) Attacking the fallen opponent
            This action is extremely dangerous due to the high probability of 
         injury to the opponent.
            The danger arises from;
         a. The fallen opponent is in an immediate state of unprotectedness.
         b. The impact of any technique which strikes a fallen contestant will 
            be greater due to the contestant's position. These types of 
            aggressive actions toward a fallen opponent are not in accordance
            with the spirit of Taekwondo and so are not appropriate in
            Taekwondo competition.
      4-(2) Intentional attack after declaration of kalyeo Intentional attack 
            after declaration of kalyeo must definitely be punished with 
            Gam-Jeom. However, unavoidable contact is not penalized.
              The intentionality of the action is the judgement of the Referee 
            and the criterion of this judgement is whether or not the 
            competitor could have halted the action upon hearing the Referee's 
            declaration of Kalyeo.
              Visually recorded data cannot be used in argument of the 
            Referee's decision in this circumstance.
      4-(3) Attacking the back and the back of the head intentionally
            The part of the back not covered by the body protector and the back
            of the head and prohibited attacking areas. If an attack is 
            initially directed towards either of these prohibited areas it is 
            deemed intentional and the competitor must be penalized. Decision 
            of intentionlity is the judgement of the Referee.
      4-(4) Severely attacking the opponent's face with the hands or fist. 
            Judgement of this violation is made on two-basis;
            a. Apparent lack of caution and/or intentionality of the attacker.
            b. Impact of the blow and severity of the injury received by the 
               opponent as well as the opponent's ability to resume the match.
            The decision must be made after careful consideration of the 
         above two factors by the Referee. If the action was deemed 
         intentional by the Referee, the penalty must be Gam-jeom even 
         if the impact or injury are slight.
         In the case of a lack of caution on the part of the attacker;
            a. If the injury is slight the penalty is Kyong-go.
            b. If the injury is severe the penalty is Garn-jeom.
            An accidental strike to the face shall be penalized by Kyong-go 
         without regard to the degree of impact or injury.
      4-(5) Butting.
           This sub-article must be applied only on the basis of intentionality.
           This action, if accidental, cannot be punished. However, intentional
         butting must be penalized with Gam-jeom without exception.
      4-(6) Crossing the boundary line.
           In principle, ' the competitors must not cross the boundary line at
         any time during the course of the match. If a contestant crosses the 
         Boundary Line for any reason other than inevitable or as the result of
         the opponent's techniques, this shall be punished by Gam-jeom.
           In particular, crossing the Boundary Line directly after the 
         declaration of Kolyeo for unwarranted reasons shall be strictly 
         penalized.
      4-(7) Throwing the opponent.
           This action includes the throwing action as a result of grappling 
         with the hands or legs.
      4-(8) Violent or extreme remarks on the part of the contestant or coach.
           Refer to Sub-article 13 of the Kyong-go penalties.
      Explanation(5): When a competitor refuses may declare the competitor the
                      loser by penalty;
           The Referee can declare a competitor a loser without the 
         accumulation of minus three(-3) penalty points when the competitor or
         coach ignores or violates the inherent prindples of conduct or
         fundamental principles of the Competition Rules or the Referee's 
         directives.
           Particularly, if the competitor shows the intention to injure or
         commit a flagrant violation in spite of the Referee's cautionary
         directives, such a competitor must immediately be declared the
         loser by penalties.
           If the Referee does not declare a competitor loser by penalties in
         the above situation where there is the clear potential for danger;
         the Head of Court can order the Referee to end the competition
         the Referee must obey.
      Explanation(6): When the contestant receives -3 points the Referee shall 
         declare him/her the loser by penalties:
           Minus three points means a total accumulation of -3 points without 
         regard to the classification as to Kyong-go or Gam-jeom. When a 
         contestant accumulates -3 points, that contestant is automatically the
         loser. In this instance, the Referee must declare the other contestant
         the winner unconditionally.

Article 15. Decision of Superiority
    1. In the case of a tied score by deduction of points, the winner shall be
       the contestant awarded any point or more points through the three rounds.
    2. In the case of a tied score other than case 1. above(both contestants 
       received the same number of points and/or deductions), the winner shall
       be decided by the Referee based on superiority throughout all three 
       rounds.
    3. Decision of superiority shall be based on the initiative shown during 
       the contest.
    Explanation(1): In the case of a tied score by deduction of points
       In the scoring procedure the valid point has the highest priority.
    Explanatlon(2) : Throughout all three rounds 
       Assessment of superiority is made on the basis of the overall results 
       of the match without comparison on a round to round basis and the 
       decision of superiority is made at the end of the final round.
    Explanatlon(3) : The decision of superiority shall be made on the basis of 
       the initiative shown:
       3-(1) The meaning of "initiative" is technical dominance of an opponent 
       through aggressive match management.
       3-(2) If the technical dominance of one competitor or the other cannot 
       be clearly determined, the Referee may then decide superiority on the 
       basis of the greater number of techniques executed.
       3-(3) If there is no clear difference in the number of techniques 
       executed, superiority is based on the use of the more advanced 
       techniques both in difficulty and complexity. For example, the face 
       kick, spinning kick, or jump kick.
       3-(4) If superiority cannot be decided by any of the above criterion, 
       then it shall be awarded to the competitor displaying the best 
       competition manner.

Article 16. Decisions
    1. Win by K.O.
    2. Win by Referee stopping the contest(RSC).
    3. Win by score or superiority.
    4. Win by withdrawal.
    5. Win by disqualification.
    6. Win by Referee's punitive declaration.
  Explanation(1): Win by K.O. 
      The Referee declares this result when a competitor cannot resume 
    competition within 10 seconds after being knocked down by a legitimate 
    technique. When, as a result of a blow, the Referee determines that a 
    competitor is not fit to resume competition, this result may be declared 
    before 10 seconds has elapsed.
  Explanatlon(2): Referee stops contest
      If it is determined by the judgement of the Referee or Commissioned 
    Doctor that a contestant cannot continue, even after a one minute recovery 
    period or, when a contestant disregards the Referee's command to continue, 
    the Referee shall declare the contest stopped and the other contestant the 
    winner.
  Expianation(3): Win by score or superiority 
      In this case the winner is deterrnined by the final score or the decision
    of superiority.
  Explanation(4): Win by withdrawal
      The winner is determined by the withdrawal of the opponent.
    4-(1) When a contestant withdraws from the match due to injury or other 
    reasons.
    4-(2) When a contestant does not resume the match after the rest period 
    or fails to respond to the call to begin the match.
    4-(3) When the coach throws in a towel to signify forfeiture of the match.
  Explanation(5):Win by disqualification 
      This is the result determined by the contestant's failure in the weigh-in
    or when a contestant loses competitor status before the competition begins.
  Exianatlon(6):Win by the Referee's punitive declarations 
      This is the result declared by the Referee after the accumulation of
    three minus (-3) points or by the Referee's dedsion according to item #8, 
    Article 14 of the Competition Rules.

Article 17. Knock Down
  1. When any part of the body other than the sole of the foot touches the 
     floor due to the force of the opponent's delivered technique.
  2. When a contestant is staggering and showing no intention or ability to 
     pursue the match.
  3. When the Referee judges that the contestant cannot continue as the result 
     of any powerful technique having been delivered.
  Explanation : Knock - down  
       A knock-down is defined as a situation in which a contestant is knocked 
     to the floor or is staggered or unable to respond adequately to the 
     requirements of the match due to a blow. Even in the absence of these 
     indications, the Referee may interpret as a knock down, the situation 
     where, as the result of contact, it would be dangerous to continue or 
     when there is any question about the safety of a contestant

Article 18. Procedures In the Event Of a Knock-Down
  1. When a contestant is knocked down as the result of an opponent's 
     legitimate attack, the Referee shall take the following measures:
     a) The Referee shall keep the attacker away from the downed contestant 
        by declaration of Kalyeo.
     b) The Referee shall count aloud from Hanah (one) up to Yeol (ten) at one 
        second intervals towards the downed contestant, making hand signals 
        indicating the passage of time.
     c) If the downed contestant stands up during the Referee's count and 
        desires to continue the fight, the Referee shall continue the count up
        to Yeodul(eight), for the recovery of the downed contestant. The
        Referee shall then determine if the contestant is fully recovered and, 
        if so, continue the contest by declaration of Kyesck (continue).
     d) When a contestant who has been knocked down cannot demonstrate the
        will to resume the contest by the count of Yeodul (eight), the Referee 
        shall declare the other contestant winner by K.O.
     e) The count shall be continued even after the end of the round or the 
        expiration of the match time.
     f) In the event both contestants are knocked down, the Referee shall
        continue counting as long as one of the contestants has not 
        sufficiently recovered.
     g) When both contestants fail to recover by the count of Yeol, the winner 
        shall be dedded upon the match score before the occurence of the knock 
        down.
     h) When it is judged by the Referee that a contestant is unable to 
        continue, the Referee may decide the winner either without counting or 
        during the counting.
  2. Procedures to be followed after the contest.
     Any contestant suffering a knockout as the result of a blow to the head, 
     will not be allowed to compete for the next 30 days. Before entering
     a new contest after 30 days, the contestant must be examined by a 
     physician designated by the national Taekwondo Federation, who must 
     certify that the contestant is recovered and able to compete.
     Explanation(1) : Keep the attacker away 
          In this situation the standing opponent shall return to the 
        respective Contestant's Atark, however, if the downed contestant is on 
        or near the opponents contestants mark, the opponent shall wait at the 
        Alert Line in front of hisiher coach's chair.
     Guidelines for Officiating: The Referee must be constantly prepared for 
        the sudden occurence of a knock down situation which is usually 
        characterized by a powerful blow accompanied by dangerous impact. In 
        this situation, the Referee must declare Kalyeo and begin the count 
        without any hesitation. The Referee must be particularly careful in
        determining when an opponent has been stunned or merely stumbles and 
        also in differentiating between an opponent who has been knocked down 
        by the powerful impact of a blow and one who has been pushed or bumped 
        to the floor while in an unbalanced position.
          In the above situations, the Referee must have the ability to 
        immediately determine if a situation is a knock-down or stunned 
        condition and must immediately declare Kalyeo and begin the count.
          The Referee must have clarity and decisiveness in determining
        what constitutes a knock down and in administering the count.
     Explanation(2) : In case the downed contestant stands up during the 
        Referee's count and desires to continue the fight
          The primary purpose of counting to protect the contestant. Even if 
        the contestant desires to continue the match before the count of eight
        is reached, the Referee must count until Yeodul (eight) before 
        resuming the match. Counting to Yeodul is compulsory and cannot be 
        altered by the Referee. 
          *Count from one to ten : Hanah, Duhl, Seht, Neht, Daseot, Yeoseot, 
                                   Ilgop, Yeodul, Ahop, Yeol
     Explanation(3) : The Referee shall then determine if the contestant is 
        recovered and, if so, continue the contest by the declaration of Kyesok
          The Referee must ascertain the ability of the contestant to continue 
        simultaneously to administering the count. Final confirmation of the
        contestant's condition after the count of eight is only procedural
        and the Referee must not needlessly pass time before resuming
        the contest.
     Expianatlon(4) : When a contestant who has been knocked down cannot
        express the will to resume by the count of Yeodul, the Referee shall 
        announce the other contestant the winner by K.O. after counting to Yeol
          The contestant expresses the will to continue the match by gesturing
        several times in a fighting position with clenched fists. If the
        contestant cannot display this gesture by the count of Yeodul, the 
        Referee must declare the other contestant the winner after first 
        counting Ahop and Yeol. Expressing the will to continue after the count
        of Yeodul cannot be considered valid.
          Even if the contestant expresses the will to resume by the count of 
        Yeodul, the Referee can continue counting and may declare the contest 
        over if he/she determines the contestant is incapable of resuming the 
        match.
     Explanation(5) : When it is judged by the Referee that a contestant is 
        unable to continue: 
          When a contestant has received an apparently dangerous blow and
        has fallen in an urgent condition the Referee can suspend the
        count and call for first aid or do so in conjuction with the count.
     Guidelines for officiating:
        1. The Referee must not spend additional time confirming the 
           competitor's recovery after counting to Yeodul as a result of 
           failing to observe the contestant's condition during the 
           administration of the count.
        2. When the contestant clearly recovers before the count of Yeodul and
           expresses the will to resume and the Referee can clearly discern the
           contestant's condition yet resumption is hampered by the requirement
           of medical treatment, the Referee must, first resume the match with 
           the declaration of Kyesok followed immediately by the declarations 
           of Kalyeo and Kyeshi and the procedures of Article 19 must then be 
           followed.

Article 19. Procedures for Suspending the Match
   1. When a contest is to be stopped due to injury to one or both contestants,
      the Referee shall take the following measures:
      1) The Referee shall suspend the contest by declaration of Kalyeo and 
         order the Time-keeper to suspend the time-keeping by declaration of 
         Kyeshi.
      2) The Referee shall allow the contestant to receive first aid within 
         one minute.
      3) The contestant who does not demonstrate the will to continue the 
         contest after one minute, even in the case of a slight injury,
         shall be declared the loser by the Referee.
      4) In case resumption of the contest is impossible after one minute, the 
         contestant causing the injury by a prohibited act shall be declared 
         the loser.
      5) In case both contestants are knocked down and are unable to continue 
         the contest after one minute, the contest shall be decided upon the 
         score of the match before the injuries occurred.
      6) When if is judged that a contestant's health is at risk due to losing 
         consciousness or falling in an apparently dangerous condition, the 
         Referee shall suspend the contest immediately and order first aid to 
         be administered.
      The Referee shall declare as loser, the contestant causing the injury if 
      it is deemed to have resulted from a prohibited attack or not. In the 
      case of the attack being deemed prohibited, shall decide the winner on 
      the basis of the match score before suspension of the time.
      Explanation(1):When the Referee determines that the competition cannot be
         continued due to injury or any other emergency situation, the Referee 
         may take the following measures :
         A. If the situation is critical such as a competitor losing
            consciousness or suffering a severe injury and time is crucial, 
            first-aid must immediately be directed and the match closed. In 
            this case the result of the match will be decided as follows :
            i) The causer shall be declared the loser if the outcome was the 
               result of a prohibited act.
           ii) The incapacitated contestant shall be declared the loser if the 
               outcome was the result of a legal action or accidental, 
               unavoidable contact.
          iii) If the outcome was unrelated to the match contents, the winner 
               shall be decided by the match score before suspension of the 
               match.
         If the suspension occurs before the end of the first round, the match 
         shall be invalidated.
         B. When the severity of the injury is not serious, the competitor has 
            one minute after the declaration of Kyeshi in which to receive 
            necessary treatment.
              i) Permission for medical treatment
                 When the Referee determines that medical treatment is 
                 necessary, he/she can direct treatment from the Commissioned 
                 Doctor.
             ii) Order to resume the match 
                 It is the decision of the Referee whether or not it is 
                 possible for the contestant to resume the match The Referee
                 at anytime, order the contestant to resume the match within 
                 one minute. The Referee can declare as loser any contestant
                 who does not follow the order to resume the match.
            iii) while the contestant is receiving medical treatment or is in 
                 the process of recovering, 40 seconds after the declaration 
                 of Kyeshi, the Referee begins to loudly announce the passage 
                 of time in five second intervals. When the competitor cannot 
                 return to the Contestant's Mark by the end of the one minute 
                 period, the match results must be declared.
             iv) After the declaration of Kyeshi, the one minute time interval 
                 is strictly observed regardless of the commissioned Doctor's
                 availability. However, when the Doctor's treatment is required
                 and the Doctor is absent or additional treatment is necessary,
                 the one minute time limit can be suspended by the judgement 
                 of the Head of Court.
              v) If resumption of the match is impossible after one minute, 
                 the decision of the match will be determined according to 
                 Sub article #1. item 1 of this Article.
         C. If both contestants become incapacitated and are unable to resume 
            the match after one minute or urgent conditions arise, the match 
            result is decided according to the following criteria:
              i) If the outcome is the result of a prohibited act by one 
                 contestant, that person shall be the loser.
             ii) If the outcome is the result of prohibited acts by both 
                 contestants, both contestants shall lose.
            iii) If the outcome was not related to any prohibited act the 
                 result of the match shall be determined by the match score
                 at the time of suspension of the match. However, if the 
                 suspension occurs before the end of the first round, the 
                 match shall be invalidated and the Organizing Committe will
                 determine an appropriate time to recontest the match. If, by 
                 the determined rematch time, a contestant is still unable
                 to compete, that contestant shall be considered withdrawn.
       Explanadon(2) : The situations which warrant suspending the match 
             beyond the above prescribed procedures shall be treated as 
             follows:
         A. When uncontrollable circumstances require suspension of the match, 
            the Head of Court shall suspend the match and follow the directives
            of the competition Organizing Committee.
         B. If the match is suspended after the completion of the second round 
            the match shall be determined according to the match score at the 
            time of suspension if the match cannot be concluded.
         C. If the match is suspended before the conclusion of the second
            round, a rematch shall, in prindple, be conducted and shall be 
            held in three full rounds.

Article 20. Referees and Judges
  1. Qualifications
     Holders of international Referees Certificate registered by the WTF.
  2. Duties
     1) Referee
          i) The Referee shall have control over the match.
         ii) The Referee shall declare Shijak, Keurnan, Kalyei, Kyesok, and
             Kyeshi, winner and loser; deduction of points, warnings and 
             retiring.  All the Referee's declarations shall be made when the 
             results are confirmed.
        iii) The Referee shall have the right to make decisions independently 
             in accordance with the prescribed rules.
         iv) The Referee shall not award points.
          v) In the case or a tied of scoreless match, the decision of 
             superiority shall be made by the Referee after the end of
             three rounds.
     2) Judges
          i) The Judges shall mark the valid points immediately.
         ii) The Judges shall state their opinions forthrightly when requested 
             by the Referee.
  3. Responsibility for judgement
       Decisions made by the Referee and Judges shall be conclusive and they 
     shall be responsible to the Board of Arbitration for those decisions.
  4. Uniform of the Referees and Judges
     1) The Referees and Judges shall wear the uniform designated by the WTF.
     2) The Referees and Judges shall not carry or take any materials to the
        Arena which might interfere with the contest.
Article 21. Head of Court
  1. Qualification
     Holder of the International Referees Certificate with years of experience 
     in competition management.
  2. Duties
     1) Overall control and supervision of the pertinent Competition Area.
     2) Confirmation of the decision.
     3) Evaluation of the Referee's and Judge's performance.
     4) Giving a report at any meeting of the Board of Arbitration.

Article 22. Recorder
  The Recorder shall time the contest and periods of time-out, suspension, and
  also shall record and publicize the awarded points, and/or deduction of 
  points.

Article 23. Assignment of officials
  1. Composition of officials
       i) In the use of non-electronical trunk protectors
          The officials are composed of one Head of Court, one Referee and
          four Judges.
      ii) In the use of electronic trunk protectors 
          The offidals are composed of one Head of Court, one Referee and two 
          Judges.
  2. Assignment of officials
       i) The assignment of the Head of Court, Referee and Judges shall be 
          made after the contest schedule is fixed.
      ii) Referees and Judges with the same nationality as that of either 
          contestant shall not be assigned to such a contest.
      However, an exception shall be made for the Judges when the absolute 
      number of Referees and Judges is wholly insufficient.
  Explanation: The details of the qualifications, duties, organization, etc., 
               shall follow the R.Administration Regulations of the WTF.

Article 24. Other Matters not Specified in the Rules

  In the case of any matters not specified in the Rules occurring they shall 
  be dealt with as follows :
     1) Matters related to the competition shall be decided through concensus
        of the Head of Court and the refereeing officials of the pertinent 
        contest.
     2) AIatters which are not related to a specific contest shall be decided 
        by the Executive Council or its proxy.

Article 25. Arbitration
  1. Composition of Board of Arbitration
     i) Qualifications : Members of Executive Coundl of the WTF or person of
        sufficient Taekwondo experience recommended by WTF President or
        Secretary General.
    ii) Composition : One chairman and less than six members.
   iii) Procedures of appointment: The Chairman and members of the Board of
        Arbitration will be appointed by the WTF President on the 
        recommendation of the WTF Secretary General.
  2. Responsibility: The Board of Arbitration shall make corrections of 
     misjudgements according to their decisions regarding protests and take
     disciplinary action against the offidals committing misjudgements or any 
     illegal behavior, the recults of which shall be sent to the Secretariate 
     of the WTF.
  3. Procedures of the protest
     i) In the event of an objection to a judgement, a delegate must submit 
        an application for re-evaluation of the decision (protest application) 
        together with the prescribed fee to the Board of Arbitration within 
        10 minutes after the pertinent contest.
    ii) Deliberation of re-evaluation shall be carried excluding those members
        with the same nationality as that of either contestant concerned, and 
        resolution on deliberation shall be made by majority.
   iii) The members of the Board of Arbitration may summon the Head of Court, 
        and refereeing officials for confirmation of events.
    iv) The resolution made by the Board of Arbitration shall be final and no 
        further means or appeal will be applied.
  4. Other provisions
       A video tape recorder shall be set up at each court for deliberation of 
     the protest.
  Explanation(1) : Excluding those members with the same nationality...; If 
                   there are officials with the same nationality as either
                   contestant involved. on the Board of Arbitration, those 
                   members must be excluded from the arbitration. In all cases,
                   the number of Board members must be an odd number. If the 
                   Chairman is the one who is ineligible, a temporary Chairman 
                   must be elected by the remaining members.
  Explanation(2) : Deliberation procedures-
     1. After reviewing the protest applications, the content of the protest 
        must be arranged according to the criterion of "acceptable" or 
        "unacceptable".
     2. If necessary, the Board can hear opinions from the Referee, Judges, or 
        the Head of Court.
     3. If necessary, the Board can review the material evidence of the 
        decision, such as the written or visual recorded data.
     4. After deliberation, the Board holds a ballot to determine a majority 
        decision.
     5. The Chairman will make a report documenting the outcome of the 
        deliberations and shall make this outcome publicly known.
     6. Treatment of the decision: 
        a) Errors in determining the match results, mistakes in calculating the
           match score or misidentifying a contestant shall result in the 
           decision being reversed.
        b) Error in application of the rules-When it is determined by the Board
           that the Referee made a clear error in applying the competition 
           rules, the outcome of the error shall be corrected and the Referee
           reprimanded.
        c) Errors in factual judgement-When the Board decides that there was
           clearly an error in judging the facts such as impact of striking, 
           severity of action or conduct, intentionality, timing of an act in 
           relation to a declaration or area, the decision shall not be changed
           and the officials seen to have made the error shall be reprimanded.



These Competition Rules came into effect October 7, 1990.


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